How Diesel Engines Work
The diesel internal combustion engine differs from the gasoline powered Otto cycle by using highly compressed, hot air to ignite the fuel rather than using a spark plug.
In the true Motore diesel, only air is initially introduced into the combustion chamber. The air is then compressed with a compression ratio typically between 15:1 e 22:1 resulting in 40-bar (4.0 MPa; 580 psi) pressure compared to 8 per 14 bars (0.80 per 1.4 MPa) (di 200 psi) in the petrol engine. At about the top of the compression stroke, fuel is injected directly into the compressed air in the combustion chamber, with spark the diesel get burned & get started to get load & cycle get repeated on each movement of pistons.
Diesel engines have several advantages over other internal combustion engines
They burn less fuel than a petrol engine performing the same work, due to the engine’s higher temperature of combustion and greater expansion ratio Gasoline engines are typically 25 percent efficient while diesel engines can convert over 30 percent of the fuel energy into mechanical energy.
They have no high-tension electrical ignition system to attend to, resulting in high reliability and easy adaptation to damp environments. The absence of coils, spark plug wires, eccetera., also eliminates a source of radio frequency emissions which can interfere with navigation and communication equipment, which is especially important in marine and aircraft applications.
They can deliver much more of their rated power on a continuous basis than a petrol engine.
The life of a Motore diesel is generally about twice as long as that of a petrol engine due to the increased strength of parts used. Diesel fuel has better lubrication properties than petrol as well.
There are inlet and outlet valves in an engine. The inlet valves let in air and fuel, and the outlet valves let out the exhaust fumes. Both have high importance in keeping the engine running at optimum temperatures. When combustion and compression take place, then both the valves stay closed. The combustion chamber remains sealed at that time.
The piston moves up and down and is a vital part of the cylinder. It comprises of many parts.
The edges, both outer and inner in a cylinder have a sliding seal made of the piston rings. The piston rings have two important roles, and they are:
The rings seal the valves, and hence the exhaust gases or the fuel or air mixture cannot leak out to the sump during compression and combustion.
The oil in the sump is not leaked into the combustion area, and hence the wastage of fuel by being burnt and lost can be avoided.
When these rings are worn off in an old engine of a used car, then the oil is lost and burnt and wasted. così, the car’s fuel consumption increases.
The piston and crankshaft are connected by the Biella. The power of rotation at both ends lets it change angles flexible as the crankshaft rotates and the piston moves.
The job of this part of the Motore diesel is to convert the up and down motion of the piston into a rotational motion.
How the Parts Make the Diesel Engine Work
The piston reaches the end through an induction stroke while the inlet valve closes.
Other pistons powered by the piston pressure and the flywheel momentum, reaches the cylinder top to compress the air to a volume which is 20 times lower than the original.
When the piston is at the top position, a small amount of fuel is injected into the combustion chamber.
The air-fuel mixture gets ignited from the heat generated by the high compression.
The burning air expands and forces the piston downward to turn the crankshaft.
While the piston goes for the exhaust stroke, the exhaust valve is opened. Di conseguenza, the exhaust gases travel through the exhaust pipe, and the end of the stroke makes the cylinder ready to take fresh air again.
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Difference in Parts of a Diesel Engine
There are many differences between diesel and fuel engines:
The spark plus is missing in a diesel engine. That’s because the fuel-air mixture is ignited not through a spark, but by a simple compression.
The air drawn into a petrol engine is different in different strokes and varies in volume. But in a diesel engine, the air drawn is fixed with each stroke. There is only one inlet valve in the diesel engine. The butterfly valve and carburetor are not present in a diesel engine, unlike the petrol engine.